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Telephone was invented by Alexander Graham Bell, a Scotsman who had come to the USA in 1871 A.D. He was a teacher of the deaf at Boston. But at night he made experiments with a harmonic telegraph, a device for sending several telegraphic messages together over one wire. He was always thinking of the telephone in his mind.
On June 2, 1875, one of the several reeds of the harmonic telegraph got struck. Bell’s assistant, Thomas A. Watson, snapped the reed in order to loosen it. Bell who was in another room heard the sound in his receiver.
Bell realized that vibrations of the reed had led to vibrations in electric current which had reproduced them further in the receiver. He worked on the idea and at last on March 10, 1876, he was able to develop a telephone. He kept demonstrating his invention for about two years. In 1877 A.D., Bell Telephone Company came to be set up and in 1878, the first telephone exchange came to be opened at Haven (USA) with 21 customers.